How to Perform Technical Analysis of Stocks

How to Perform Technical Analysis of Stocks

Technical analysis of stocks is gaining popularity amongst investors and traders as advancements in charting patterns, and trading platforms are making it easy for investors to use this method for security analysis. However, for an amateur investor, understanding technical analysis of stocks can be intimidating and challenging.

Stock market technical analysis is a method used to examine the price movements of stock by studying the historical charts and specific indicators and determine the future price of the stock. Quite simply, it is analyzing the pictorial representation of the past and present price movements and using it establish patterns and identify the trend for the future price of the stock. As opposed to fundamental analysis, which analyses a stock based on its intrinsic value and impact of external factors on the price of the security, technical analysis of stocks is purely based on identifying patterns on a chart to determine the future price movement.

Key assumptions for technical analysis of stocks

Technical analysis is based on studying the market action and the function of demand and supply of the stock. Few key underlying assumptions are:

  1. Believes in the theory of the efficient market and reflects all information

The first assumption of technical analysis of stocks is that the current market price of the security reflects all the information and it is the fair price of the stock and should be the basis of analysis.

  1. The price movement of stock follows a trend

The price of the stock moves in a trend until reversed. So, analysts need to identify the trend by reading the price pattern.

  1. Patterns repeat itself

The beauty of technical analysis of stocks is that close monitoring of the charts reflects the same patterns being repeated hence making it easier to predict future price movements.

Chart Analysis

To perform technical analysis, you need to use charts to identify trends and also any reversal in trend. These technical analysis charts are a visual representation of the price of the security over a period. The vertical axis is the price scale, and the horizontal axis is the time scale.

The three important technical analysis charts are-

  • Line charts- It is formed by connecting the closing price of the stock over a specific period and does not include any other information like open, high, or low of the stock.
  • Bar charts- Bar charts provide a better visual of the price of the stock as it shows the opening, high, low, and closing (OHLC) of the stock.
  • Candlestick charts- The candlestick chart provides the same information as bar charts, but the representation makes candlesticks charts easier and quicker to understand.

Technical Analysis Indicators

Indicators are the basis of technical analysis of stocks and play an important role in helping analysts in identifying trading opportunities by giving entry and exit signals in the stock markets. These technical analysis indicators broadly fall in two categories-

Leading Indicators –These lead the price movement and indicate the probability of trend reversal in advance. Some of the common leading indicators are the Relative Strength Index(RSI), Stochastic Indicator, etc.

Lagging Indicators- These follows the price movement and are trend-following indicators. Some of the common lagging indicators are moving averages (MA), moving average convergence/divergence (MACD), etc.

  1. Trend line indicator

This is one of the simplest indicators used in technical analysis and is important to identify the market trend. The price movement of a stock is represented in peaks and troughs series, and these series represent the trend in which the price moves. The three market technical analysis of stock trends are-

  • Uptrend- Uptrend is defined as a series of higher highs and higher lows
  • Downtrend- Downtrend is defined as a series of lower highs and lower lows
  • Sideways- The market is said to be flat when the prices move in a horizontal range.

Using trend lines is one of the many techniques for analysis, and once the then trend line is broken, it should be used as a warning for a reversal in trend. Once there is a breakout in the trend line additional tools should be used to identify the change in trend.

  1. Supportand Resistance Indicators

Support and resistance levels are two critical levels that define the meeting point of the forces of demand and supply and help analysts determine the market psychology.

Support – It is the level where the demand is strong to keep the security from sliding any further.

Resistance- It is the level where the supply is strong to keep the stock from moving any higher.

When either of the levels is broken, then the supply and demand have moved on, and new support levels will be established. 

  1. Momentum Indicators

Momentum indicators are usually leading indicators and tell you how strong the current trend is and if the trend is likely to change. Some of the common momentum indicators include

  • The moving average convergence/divergence (MACD) indicator- It shows the relationship between two moving averages.
  • Relative strength index indicator- It measures the speed and strength of the price movement in the market by comparing the current price to the past performance.
  1. Oscillating Indicators

Oscillating indicators are used for the analysis of securities that are not trending but are trading in a range. Oscillating indicators are beneficial when the security is moving in a horizontal pattern and discover potential entry and exit points as they help determine oversold and overbought conditions. A Stochastic oscillator is the most frequently used indicator.

The above indicators are significant for analysts and traders for technical analysis of stock trends and for future price movement prediction.


For anyone who is trading or investing in the equity markets, it is important to understand the basics of technical analysis to understand the market movements. However, as stock market technical analysis is a little complex, correct guidance is essential. Our experts at IndiaNivesh can help you guide through the crucial tools and techniques for technical analysis.


Disclaimer: Investment in securities market / Mutual Funds are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing. 


Step by Step Guide on how to file ITR (Income Tax Returns)

Over the last few years, the income-tax department of the country has been very dedicated to making the process for filing of ITR returns easier to ensure robust compliance by the taxpayers. However, many people find still find it intimidating and prefer to pass it on to professionals. How to file ITR online? Filing your ITR online is mandatory, and only super senior citizens who are 80 years or above can file their returns in a paper format. As filing the ITR online has simplified the process manifold, here is a step-by-step guide on how to file ITR- Step 1- Register/Login on the Income Tax Department Portal The first step to filing your ITR online is to register yourself on the Income Tax portal  Your Permanent Account Number is your user id for registration, and you are required to set an alphanumeric password for it. Once you have registered on the official website, you need to log in with the same ID and password, and you will get secure access. You will be prompted to put a captcha each time you log in. Step2 –Collect the relevant documents needed to file your returns Before you start filing your ITR, all your documents must be organised and handy at the time of filing returns. Here is a list of documents you will need for filing your ITR online- PAN Card Aadhaar Card Bank Account Statements Bank Account Details TDS certificate( Form 16/Form 16A) Apart from these basic documents, if you have any other income such as rental income, capital gains/losses, then keep all such documents handy. Step 3- Click on the "Filing of the income tax return" to begin the process of ITR filing online Once you have registered yourself on the e-portal, login to your account and click on the “Filing of income tax return” tab on the dashboard. Step 4 - Download the correct form for ITR filing There are different ITR filing forms available based on your source of income. Choose the relevant form based on your income. The various available based on the nature of income are- ITR-1 Form- Individuals earning income from salary, income from house property, and income from other sources. ITR-2 Form- Individuals and HUFs who do not conduct business or profession as proprietors ITR-3 Form- Individuals and HUFs earning an income through business or profession as proprietors ITR-4 Form- Individuals earning income as business professionals ITR-5 Form- It is for firms, Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs), co-operative societies, body of individuals ITR-6 Form- Those companies that are not claiming tax exemptions under Section 11 of the Income Tax Act ITR-7 Form- It is for trusts, colleges, institutions and political parties It is essential that you choose the correct form for ITR filing as filling in the wrong form will make it invalid, and you will have to re-file it.  Step 5- Fill in the relevant information in the ITR form Once you have downloaded the appropriate form, then enter all the relevant details like name, PAN details, address, date of birth, investments, bank details, etc. in the form and validate the details entered by you. Step 6- Compute your taxable income Once you have entered all the relevant information in the form, compute your total taxable income for the financial year by adding the income from all the five heads of income. Step 7- Calculate your tax liability After you compute your taxable income, calculate your tax liability as per your income tax slab. Step 8- Verify your Form 26 AS The next step is to verify your Form 26 AS, which shows all the taxes that you have already paid in the year. You have to go on the quick link menu and open your Form 26 AS where you find details of TDS, advance tax, self-assessment, etc. Form 26 AS is a consolidation of tax credit statement. Step 9- Calculate your final tax liability Calculate your final tax liability after deducting the taxes that have already been paid by you. If there are any additional tax that needs to be paid then you can pay it online. Step 10- ITR filing after paying your dues Once you have paid your taxes in full, you can file your ITR in Excel or Java software utility. ITR1 and ITR 4 forms can be submitted online only. Step 11- Verification of your ITR filing This is the last step in filing ITR. You are required to verify your ITR either electronically or physically. If you opt for electronic verification, then you will receive the acknowledgement receipt immediately. You can also send the ITR for verification by sending a signed copy by post to the Income Tax Department in Bangalore within 120 days, and they will email you the acknowledgement for the same. After the verification is over, the Income Tax Department will process your ITR to cross-check the details and tax paid by you. On completion, they will communicate the same to you via email on the registered email id. Conclusion Over the years, the process of ITR filing has been simplified, and now it is mandatory to e-file your returns except in the case of super senior citizens. If you have any queries or doubts about filing your ITR online, then you can get in touch with our tax experts at IndiaNivesh to help you file your returns.   Disclaimer: Investment in securities market / Mutual Funds are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing. 

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Income Tax Slabs & Rates in India for 2020-21

Every year, the income that you earn is subject to income tax. Calculation of your tax liability depends on the income tax slabs, which are determined under the Income Tax Act, 1961. These tax slabs specify the rates of tax payable on different levels of income. The higher the income you earn, the higher would be the income tax rate. However, before we understand the income tax slabs and calculation of your tax liability, let's look at the five sources of income that you need to declare when filing your income tax returns. Sources of income Income from salary Income from business or profession Income from capital gains Income from house property Income from other sources Any income that you earn in a financial year should be recorded under the correct head of income. After that, the total income is added together to find your gross taxable income. You can claim eligible deductions and exemptions from your gross taxable income to arrive at the net taxable income, which would then be subject to tax. Income tax slabs Now that you know how you are required to calculate your taxable income, here are the income tax slab rates which are applicable to calculate your tax liability – Income tax slab for individuals and HUF’s Points to note Here are some points which you should note concerning the above-mentioned income tax slabs In all the above-mentioned income tax slabs, there would be an additional health and education cess of 4% on the tax liability calculated. If your net taxable income is up to INR 5 lakhs, you can claim a rebate on the tax payable under Section 87A of the Income Tax Act, 1961. The rebate allowed would be your actual tax liability or INR 12,500, whichever is lower. This rebate reduces your tax liability to zero if your income is limited to INR 5 lakhs Illustration Let’s understand how to use the income tax slab for calculating your tax liability with the help of an example. Mr. Verma is 40 years of age, and he has an income of INR 10 lakhs from salary and INR 2 lakhs from other sources. He invests INR 1.5 lakhs in ELSS schemes and INR 20,000 towards a health insurance policy. His income tax liability would be calculated as follows – Calculation of Mr. Verma’s Taxable Income New Income Tax Slab In the Union Budget 2020, Mrs. Nirmala Sitharaman, India’s Finance Minister, introduced a new income tax slab. In this tax slab, the income tax rates are lower for higher levels of income. The new income tax slab is as follows – Income tax slab 2020-21 Points to note This slab would be applicable from the financial year 2020-21 Health and education cess of 4% would be applicable on the tax liability calculated using the above-mentioned income tax slab If you choose the new income tax slab rates, you would not be able to avail deductions and exemptions available under different sections of the Income Tax Act, 1961 Two deductions can be claimed under the new tax regime from your taxable income. The first deduction will be for your employer's contribution to the National Pension Scheme (NPS) if you are a salaried employee under Section 80 CCD (2). Contribution of up to 10% of your salary would be allowed as a deduction. The second deduction is under Section 80JJAA where expenses incurred on new employment would be allowed as an exemption. The income tax slab 2020-21 is optional. You can either choose the new tax slab or the old one for calculating your tax liability. The rebate under Section 87A would be allowed even under the new tax regime if taxable income is up to INR 5 lakhs Illustration In the above example, if the new tax regime is considered and the employer’s contribution to NPS scheme is INR 50,000, the taxable income and tax liability would be calculated as follows – Calculation of Mr. Verma’s Taxable Income (New Tax Slabs) As you can see, even in the absence of deductions, the new tax regime allows a lower tax liability due to lower tax rates. When you calculate your tax liability, use both income tax slabs, the old and the new, and find out your tax liability. Then choose the tax slab, which offers the lowest tax outgo and file your income tax returns. You can choose tax-deductible investments offered by IndiaNivesh and lower your tax liability using the old tax slabs. So, work out both the alternatives, if you need tax saving options, find them on IndiaNivesh and then file your returns.   Disclaimer: Investment in securities market / Mutual Funds are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing. 

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    Inflation is an economic term and referred to the continuous rise in the price of goods and services, thereby reducing the purchasing power of the money. The pinch of inflation is felt by all sections of the economy, be it, the consumers, investors, and the government.  And, even though it increases the cost of living, inflation is a necessary evil and desirable for the growth and development of the economy. For the reason of inflation, it is only fair to pay more for your goods like comb and brush over the years due to an increase in the price. For the same reason, it is unfair to pay capital gains tax on your assets without taking into account the impact of inflation on the value of the asset. Cost Inflation Index(CII) is the index to calculate the increase in the price of assets year-on-year due to the impact of inflation. What is the Cost Inflation Index? Cost Inflation Index or CII is an essential tool for determining the increase in the price of an asset on account of inflation and is useful at the time of calculating the long-term capital gains on the sale of capital assets. It is fixed by the central government and released in its gazetted offices by the Ministry of Finance every year. Capital gains are the profits arising from the sale of assets like real estate, financial investment, jewellery, etc. The cost price of the asset is adjusted taking into account the Cost Inflation Index of the year of purchase and the year in which the asset is sold, and the entire process is known as Indexation. Cost Inflation Index Calculation The cost inflation index calculation is done by the government to match the inflation rate for the year and calculated using the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Cost Inflation Index India for the financial year 2019-20 has been set at 289. Change of the base year for the Cost Inflation Index The cost inflation index base year was changed in the Union Budget 2017 from 1881 to 2001. The base year was changed by the government to enable accurate and faster calculations of the properties purchased before April 1, 1981, as taxpayers started to face problems with valuations of older properties. The base year has an index value of 100, and the index of the following years is compared to the index value in the base year to determine the increase in inflation. With the change in the base year, the capital gains and tax burden has reduced significantly for the taxpayers as it now reflects the inflated price of the asset realistically. The current Cost Inflation Index Chart for each year is as under- How is the Cost Inflation Index (CII) used in calculating capital gains To calculate the capital gains on your assets the purchase price of the asset is indexed by the cost Inflation Index using the formula below- Indexed cost of the asset at the time of acquisition = (CII for the year of sale/ CII for the year of purchase or base year (whichever is later))*actual cost of acquisition If suppose you purchased a flat in December 2010 for Rs 42 lacs and sold in Jan 2019 for Rs 85 lacs. Your capital gain from the sale of the flat is Rs 43 lacs. The CII in the year in which the flat was purchased is 148, and the CII in the year the flat was sold in is 280. The purchase price of the flat after taking into account the Cost Inflation Index is = (280/148)*Rs42 lacs= Rs 79. 46 lacs  This is the indexed cost of acquisition. Your long-term capital gain after taking indexation into account is Rs 85,00,000- Rs 79,45,946 = Rs.5,54,054. Long-term capital gains on the sale of property are taxed at 20% with indexation benefit. So, your tax liability, in this case, would be- 20% of Rs 5, 54, 054= Rs 1,10,810 Without indexation benefit, the capital gains are taxed at 10%. In this case, the capital gains would be- Sale price of the flat - purchase price of the flat = Rs 85,00,000 – Rs42,00,000 = Rs.43,00,000.  The capital gains tax without indexation benefit will be 10% X Rs 43,00,000 = Rs.4,30,000. Thus, indexation helps reduce the long-term capital gains and reduce the overall tax burden for the taxpayer considerably. Indexation benefit can be used for investments in mutual funds, real estate, gold, FMPs, etc. but is not applied for fixed income instruments like FDs, recurring deposits, NSC, etc. Few important tips to remember about the Cost Inflation Index- If you receive an asset as a part of the will, then in such the CCI for the year in which it was transferred will be considered and not the CCI of the purchase of the asset Indexation benefit for the cost of improvement of the asset is the same as the cost of improvement of the asset. Cost of improvement incurred before 1981 to be ignored. CONCLUSION Cost Inflation Index is an important parameter to be considered at the time of selling long-term assets as it is beneficial for the investors. Reach out to our experts at IndiaNivesh for any queries about capital gains arising from the sale of assets for correct guidance.   Disclaimer: Investment in securities market / Mutual Funds are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing. 

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  • Dematerialisation of Shares – Meaning, Process & Benefits

    The online platform has revolutionised the way we live. Whether it is transacting, connecting with a loved one, getting updated about the happenings in the world, everything can be done online. When it comes to investments, the online platform provides ease and convenience. Investment in shares and share trading is a prevalent activity undertaken by many investors. They invest their money in the stock of a company with a view to earn profits when the stock value rises. When shares are purchased, share certificates are issued in physical form containing the details of the investor and the investor. However, these physical share certificates are inconvenient, and so the concept of dematerialisation has been introduced. Do you know what it is? What is dematerialisation? Dematerialisation of shares means converting physical shares and securities into an electronic format. The dematerialised shares and securities are, then, held in a demat account which acts as a storage for such shares. Dematerialised securities can then be freely traded on the stock exchange from the demat account. How does dematerialisation work? For the dematerialisation of securities, you need to open a demat account with a depository participant. A depository is tasked with holding shares and securities in a dematerialised format. As such, the depository appoints agents, called, Depository Participants, who act on behalf of the depository and provide services to investors. There are two licensed depositories in India which are NSDL (National Securities Depository Limited) and CDSL (Central Depository Services (India) Limited). Need for dematerialisation of shares Dematerialisation of securities was needed because it became difficult for depository participants to manage the increasing volume of paperwork in the form of share certificates. Not only were there chances of errors and mishaps on the part of the depository participant, but physical certificates were also becoming difficult to be updated. Converting such certificates into electronic format frees up space and makes it easy for depository participants to track and update their investor's stockholding. Benefits of dematerialisation for investors As an investor, you can get the following benefits from dematerialisation – You don’t have to handle the physical safekeeping of share certificates. Since your investments are converted in electronic format, you can easily store them without the risk of theft, loss or damage You can access your online demat account and manage your investments from anywhere and at anytime The charges associated with the demat account are low. Depository participants change holding charges which are minimal and you don't have to pay any stamp duty on dematerialised securities Since no paperwork is required to be done, the transaction time is considerably reduced Given these benefits, dematerialisation proves advantageous. Nowadays, the practice of holding physical securities has become almost obsolete and buying through a demat account has become the prevailing norm for investors. How to convert physical shares to demat? To convert physical shares to demat, the following steps should be followed – You should open a demat account with a depository participant. A depository participant can be a bank, financial institution or a stockbroker who is registered as a depository participant with the two licensed depositories of India You would then have to avail a Dematerialisation Request Form (DRF) from the depository participant and fill the form Submit the form along with your share certificates. The share certificates should be defaced by writing ‘Surrendered for Dematerialisation’ written across them. The depository participant would, then, forward the dematerialisation request to the company whose share certificates have been surrendered for dematerialisation. The request should also be sent to Registrar and Transfer (R & T) agents along with the company The company and the R & T agents would approve the request for dematerialisation if everything is found in order. The share certificates would also be destroyed. This approval would then be forwarded to the depository participant The depository would confirm the dematerialisation of shares and inform the depository participant of the same Once the approval and confirmation is complete, the shares would be electronically listed in the demat account of the investor Buying securities in a dematerialised form If you are looking to buy stock in a dematerialized form, here the simple steps that you can take for the same – Choose your broker for buying the securities and pay the broker the Fair Market Value of the securities that you want to buy The payment would be forwarded by the broker to the clearing corporation. This would be done on the pay-in day The clearing corporation would, then, credit the securities to the broker’s clearing account on the pay-out day The broker would then inform the depository participant to debit its clearing account and transfer the shares to the credit of your demat account The depository would also send a confirmation to your depository participant for the dematerialisation of shares in your account. The dematerialised shares would then be reflected in your demat account You would have to give ‘Receipt Instructions’ to your depository participant for availing the credit of shares in your demat account. This is needed if you hadn’t already placed a Standing Instruction for your depository participant when you opened your demat account. Similarly, for sale of dematerialised shares, the process is opposite. Trading in stocks in a dematerialised format is simple, quick and convenient. It has also become the practice of the current market. So, if you want to buy or sell securities, open a demat account and start trading in dematerialised securities. Should you have any doubts, get in touch with the team at IndiaNivesh who will look into your requirement and lead you towards a quick resolution.    Disclaimer: Investment in securities market / Mutual Funds are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing. 

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  • High Dividend Mutual Funds

    Dividend mutual funds are a type of mutual fund that pays a regular dividend to the unitholders of the mutual fund scheme, thereby creating a regular source of income for them. The investment strategy of the fund manager is to invest in a basket of companies that have a steady flow of income and promise to pay periodic payment to the investors. Some investors prefer a regular source of passive income from their investments. Mutual fund schemes that offer a high dividend are a popular choice for such investors. The frequency of payment of dividends is decided by the fund manager and is usually fixed. Dividends can be paid daily, monthly, quarterly, six-monthly, or yearly, and the frequency of payment is mentioned beforehand. However, there is no guarantee on the rate and amount of the dividend to the investors and the payment of dividend is subject to the performance of the fund. There are 2 types of dividend mutual funds based upon the asset class that they invest in. 1. Dividend Yielding Mutual Fund (Equity) • Mutual fund schemes which invest more than 65% of their corpus in equity shares of companies • Like any other equity scheme, they have the potential for higher returns, but also carry a higher risk • Investors should invest in these schemes with an investment horizon of medium to long term 2. Dividend Yielding Mutual Fund (Debt) • Mutual fund schemes which invest more than 65% of their corpus in debt instruments of government and corporations like treasury bonds, commercial papers, etc. • These funds carry low risk and provide average returns to investors • Interest received from the various instruments is paid as a dividend to the investors• Investors should invest in these schemes with an investment horizon of short to medium term Tax treatment for dividend mutual funds Till now, dividend income received by the investor used to be recorded under the income head of “Income from other sources” and such income was tax-free in the hands of the investor. However, as per the Union Budget 2020, the DDT is now abolished for companies and mutual funds. From April’20 onwards, any dividend received above Rs 5000 will be taxed in the hands of the investor. It will be taxed as per the individual tax slabs for both equity and debt schemes. Only debt investors who fall in the lower slabs of 10% and 20% will pay lesser taxes on dividends. For all the others, the taxation would be higher going forward. Why should investors invest in high dividend mutual funds? Dividend mutual funds offer unique advantages to the investors, especially when the macroeconomic condition of the country is weak; these investments provide the reliability of income to investors. The benefits of dividend mutual funds which should be kept in mind while investing in such funds• Fund managers of dividend mutual funds invest in companies which can pay steady dividends and even if there is a slowdown in the economy, as companies do not want to send any negative signals, they avoid curtailing payment of dividends, thus making them less volatile than other funds.• Overall returns from these funds are less affected as compared to other funds as the dividends provide a hedge against market volatility.• In a low-interest rate regime, investors looking for a higher consistent income can opt for dividend mutual funds. Disadvantages of a dividend mutual fund scheme • Returns generated by dividend mutual fund schemes are lower as compared to growth schemes in case of rising markets• These funds are not suited for aggressive investors looking for higher returns from their investment• Moreover, with the abolition of Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT), investors in the higher tax-bracket will have to pay higher taxes on the dividend income. Role of dividend mutual funds in a portfolio Invest in dividend mutual funds with an investment horizon of 7 to 10 years for optimal returns. Investment in such funds should be a part of your strategic asset allocation and to lower the volatility of the overall portfolio. Aggressive investors can allocate less than 10% of their portfolio in such funds. Conservative investors, on the other hand, can allocate a higher percentage to these funds. Essential things to keep in mind while investing in dividend mutual funds • Conservative investors looking to invest in dividend funds should invest in large-cap funds, preferably of blue-chip companies that pay a higher dividend. Investing in companies with a higher proportion in mid & small-cap companies will increase the risk of the investment, thereby defeating the purpose of investment• Invest in a fund which has been in existence for some time and witnessed a few market cycles• Avoid investing in a fund with a small corpus to minimize risk as few wrong investment calls can significantly hamper returns• The expense ratio plays a vital role in determining the overall returns from a scheme. Choose funds with a lower expense ratio   CONCLUSION Investing in high dividend mutual funds is a good option if you are looking for a regular income through dividends. Consult our experts at IndiaNivesh to help you guide through the allocation of funds in these schemes as per your investment horizon and risk profile.   Disclaimer: Investment in securities market / Mutual Funds are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing. 

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