We all know how various companies and industries raise funds for their short term requirement through the money market. However, when they need funds for long term, capital market is their source. The capital market is just like the money market but with a difference that funds raised in the capital market can be used only for long term. In this article, you will learn about the concept of capital market in detail.
Let us first understand what is the capital market?
Understanding Capital Market
Capital market in simple words means the market for long term investments. These investments have a lock-in period of more than one year. Here, the buyers and sellers transact in capital market instruments like bonds, debt instruments, debentures, shares, derivative market instruments like swaps, ETFs, futures, options, etc.
Let us now understand the types of capital market.
Types of Capital Market
The capital market is of two types i.e. Primary Market and Secondary Market.
The primary market is also called “New Issue Market” where a company brings Initial Public Offer (IPO) to get itself listed on the stock exchange for the first time. In the primary market, the mobilisation of funds is done through right issue, private placement and prospectus. The funds collected by the company in the IPO is used for its future expansion and growth. Primary markets help the investors to put their savings into companies that are looking to expand their enterprises.
The secondary market is a type of capital market where the securities that are already listed on the exchange are traded. The trading done on the stock exchange and over the counter falls under the secondary market. Examples of secondary markets in India are National Stock Exchange (NSE) and Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE).
After learning about the types of capital market, let us now learn about the capital market instruments through which money is raised.
Ways of Raising Funds
In the primary market, the prospectus is used to raise funds. The company invites the investors and the general public through an advertisement known as the prospectus to subscribe to the shares of the company. The shares or debentures are allotted to the public on the basis of subscription. If the company receives a high subscription then allotment is done to them on pro-rata basis. The company hires merchant bankers, brokers or underwriters to sell the shares to the public.
Some companies try to avoid the IPO route to raise funds as it is very costly. Instead, they give investment opportunity to few individuals via private placement. Here the companies can offer their shares for sale to select individuals, financial institutions, insurance companies and banks. This way they can raise funds quickly and economically.
The structure of capital market allows the companies in need of additional funds to first approach their current investors before looking at the other sources for finance. The right issue gives the current investors the first opportunity to make additional investments in the company. The allotment of right shares is done on pro-rata basis. However, if the current shareholders of the company do not want to exercise their rights, the shares can be offered to the public.
e-IPO means Electronic Initial Public Offer. e-IPO is an agreement between the stock exchange and the company to offer its shares to the public through online mode. It is a fast and speedy process. The company here needs to appoint registrar to the issue and brokers to accept the application received from the public.
The above mentioned are the ways of raising funds through the capital market. Let us now learn about the various functions of the capital market.
Functions of the Capital Market
- Helps in the movement of capital from the people who save money to the people who are in need of it.
- Assists in the financing of long term projects of the companies.
- Encourages investors to own the range of productive assets.
- Minimises the transaction cost.
- Helps in the faster valuation of financial securities like debentures and shares.
- Creates liquidity in the market by facilitating the trading of securities in the secondary market.
- Offers cover against price or market risks through the trading of derivative instruments.
- Helps in efficient capital allocation by way of competitive price mechanism.
- Helps in liquidity creation and regulation of funds.
The above mentioned are the functions of the capital market. The capital market performs its functions with the help of buyers and sellers who interact and transact. The structure of the Indian capital market is well regulated and highly organised. The capital markets may be sometimes termed risky because they do not give fixed returns annually. But when looked from a long term perspective, their performance has always been good and rewarding for the investors. If you want to learn more about the capital market or put your savings in the capital market, you can contact IndiaNivesh Ltd.Disclaimer: "Investment in securities market and Mutual Funds are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing."