Capital Market – Meaning, Types & Functions of Capital Market

Capital Market – Meaning, Types & Functions of Capital Market

We all know how various companies and industries raise funds for their short term requirement through the money market. However, when they need funds for long term, capital market is their source. The capital market is just like the money market but with a difference that funds raised in the capital market can be used only for long term. In this article, you will learn about the concept of capital market in detail.

Let us first understand what is the capital market?

Understanding Capital Market

Capital market in simple words means the market for long term investments. These investments have a lock-in period of more than one year. Here, the buyers and sellers transact in capital market instruments like bonds, debt instruments, debentures, shares, derivative market instruments like swaps, ETFs, futures, options, etc.

Let us now understand the types of capital market.

Types of Capital Market

The capital market is of two types i.e. Primary Market and Secondary Market.

  • Primary Market

The primary market is also called “New Issue Market” where a company brings Initial Public Offer (IPO) to get itself listed on the stock exchange for the first time. In the primary market, the mobilisation of funds is done through right issue, private placement and prospectus. The funds collected by the company in the IPO is used for its future expansion and growth. Primary markets help the investors to put their savings into companies that are looking to expand their enterprises. 

  • Secondary Market

The secondary market is a type of capital market where the securities that are already listed on the exchange are traded. The trading done on the stock exchange and over the counter falls under the secondary market. Examples of secondary markets in India are National Stock Exchange (NSE) and Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE).

After learning about the types of capital market, let us now learn about the capital market instruments through which money is raised.

Ways of Raising Funds

  • Offer through Prospectus

In the primary market, the prospectus is used to raise funds. The company invites the investors and the general public through an advertisement known as the prospectus to subscribe to the shares of the company. The shares or debentures are allotted to the public on the basis of subscription. If the company receives a high subscription then allotment is done to them on pro-rata basis. The company hires merchant bankers, brokers or underwriters to sell the shares to the public. 

  • Private Placement

Some companies try to avoid the IPO route to raise funds as it is very costly. Instead, they give investment opportunity to few individuals via private placement. Here the companies can offer their shares for sale to select individuals, financial institutions, insurance companies and banks. This way they can raise funds quickly and economically.

  • Rights Issue

The structure of capital market allows the companies in need of additional funds to first approach their current investors before looking at the other sources for finance. The right issue gives the current investors the first opportunity to make additional investments in the company. The allotment of right shares is done on pro-rata basis. However, if the current shareholders of the company do not want to exercise their rights, the shares can be offered to the public.

  • e-IPO

e-IPO means Electronic Initial Public Offer. e-IPO is an agreement between the stock exchange and the company to offer its shares to the public through online mode. It is a fast and speedy process. The company here needs to appoint registrar to the issue and brokers to accept the application received from the public.

The above mentioned are the ways of raising funds through the capital market. Let us now learn about the various functions of the capital market.

Functions of the Capital Market

  • Helps in the movement of capital from the people who save money to the people who are in need of it.
  • Assists in the financing of long term projects of the companies.
  • Encourages investors to own the range of productive assets.
  • Minimises the transaction cost.
  • Helps in the faster valuation of financial securities like debentures and shares.
  • Creates liquidity in the market by facilitating the trading of securities in the secondary market.
  • Offers cover against price or market risks through the trading of derivative instruments.
  • Helps in efficient capital allocation by way of competitive price mechanism.
  • Helps in liquidity creation and regulation of funds.
The above mentioned are the functions of the capital market. The capital market performs its functions with the help of buyers and sellers who interact and transact. The structure of the Indian capital market is well regulated and highly organised. The capital markets may be sometimes termed risky because they do not give fixed returns annually. But when looked from a long term perspective, their performance has always been good and rewarding for the investors. If you want to learn more about the capital market or put your savings in the capital market, you can contact IndiaNivesh Ltd.

Disclaimer: "Investment in securities market and Mutual Funds are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing."


Stock Investment Strategies before investing in Stocks

Stock market is one of the biggest wealth creators in India. It is the most popular investment option that provides ample opportunity to multiply your capital. There are number of ways or strategies through which you can do stock investment. The stock investment strategy varies from one person to another as it majorly depends upon your financial goals, risk appetite and investment horizon. In this article, we will walk you through the strategies that you can use while investing in stocks. Stock Investment Strategies Invest in Business, Not Stocks One of the important principles of stock investment is that you must invest in the business and not in stocks. This means that if a business is viable and has a bright future, the stock price will ultimately move up. You must avoid looking at the market trends and other noise and study the fundamentals of a company. Purchasing the stock of a company having a good business and whose probable future performance seems bright will help you in earning higher returns. This, however, requires research, long term commitment and patience to hold the stock for the long term.  Be Passionate About What You Buy When you make a stock market investment you must be passionate about the companies where you are putting your money. Being passionate here means that you must keep each and every information about the business of the company. This is because often the investors get trapped by buying stocks just by looking at the financial statements. Instead, you must conduct deep research about the various ratios like price to equity, debt to equity, EPS, etc. When you invest in companies by looking beyond the financials, you are likely to make higher returns and keep them for a long period in your portfolio. Thus, getting into the deep details of the company should be your mantra for stock market investment. Invest in Companies Whose Business You Understand You must make the stock investment in those companies whose business you understand easily. To become a successful investor, you must be aware of the various activities of the company and sector in which you are investing. However, sometimes it might not be possible for you to get or understand each and every detail of the company. In such cases, as an investor, you have to factor that as uncertain risk. Moreover, value investors look for simple business model companies because in such companies even incompetent management cannot cause much harm to the business. Invest in Well Managed Companies It is no secret that the market has always been harsh on companies that have poor management quality. Therefore, before making stock market investment, you must find companies that have a good set of management. Good management can do wonders for a company. There have been many cases in the past where investor’s stock market strategy has been to invest money in companies with good management and they have made huge profits in the long run. Good management always ignores the market value of a company and focuses on business growth. Ignore the Market Most of Times When making the stock investment, you must ignore the market. This is because you are making an investment in the company and you will hold on to it until the fundamentals are good. The market may have a temporary effect on the price of the stock but in the long run stocks with strong fundamentals will give you good gains and help your portfolio grow. There would be times when there would be huge sell-off in the market and holding to the stocks during such period is the key to success. Diversify But Don’t Over Stress It is a known fact that a diversified portfolio is the best portfolio. However, one should not overstress on diversification. This is because there can be a scenario in the market where only a few stocks are having a good run and adding them in large quantities would be against the diversification theory. In such situation, a value investor invests more money in stocks where the upside is obvious rather than keeping his capital idle. Be Consistent Always maintain a consistent approach to be successful in the stock market. Investors always seek the best stocks to buy today and in the process forget to maintain discipline. You can build and maintain your portfolio well when you are consistent with the strategies, your financial goals and have the patience to hold stocks for the long term. Taking irrational decisions when the market is volatile can prove to be fatal and it is against the basic rule of investing in the stock market. The above mentioned are a few strategies for investing in stocks. The best stock to buy today shall always be the one that successfully meets your research and analysis benchmarks. If you want any more assistance for stock investment, you can contact IndiaNivesh Ltd. We assist you in creating wealth through our customised solutions. We aim to exceed our client’s expectations in all endeavours.   Disclaimer: "Investment in securities market and Mutual Funds are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing."

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Intraday Trading Stock Tips - How to Select Stocks for Intraday

Intraday trading is one of the most popular ways to make quick money on a regular basis. However, to be successful in intraday trading, you need to pick the right stocks to trade in. Wrong selection of stocks for trade can mean wrong trading decision as well as losses. Intraday traders are always in search of the best intraday stocks for today. Gaining market knowledge and researching a bit can go a long way in picking good stocks. To further assist you with intraday trading, we list down some of the intraday trading tips that would be useful to you in making profitable trades. Intraday Trading Tips Liquid Stock The first intraday trading tip is to pick those stocks for trade that are liquid in nature. Liquidity here means higher volume. Stocks with higher liquidity or volume provide greater opportunities to trade. When there is a higher volume in stock then large quantities of it can be purchased and sold without affecting its price significantly. Moreover, intraday trading is all about closing the position at the end of the day. This is possible only when you have sufficient buyers and sellers at different price levels. Liquidity in the stock depends on its quality, news flow and many other factors. Therefore, best stocks for intraday trading on NSE are those that have higher trading volumes. Avoid Volatile Stocks The stocks that have low trading volumes and expect some news flow are generally very volatile. It is very difficult to predict the share price movement in such shares. It is advisable to avoid such stocks because they continue to show signs of volatility even after the news flow is over. Never Trade Against the Trend Another important intraday trading tip is to always follow the trend of the market. Taking a trade in the direction of the market will give you good results most of the time. When the markets are going high, the best intraday stock tip is to go long in the stocks and when the market is in the bear phase, it is advisable to go short in the stocks. Put Stop Loss To become a successful intraday trader you must always put a stop loss in your trade. Market does not always function as per your expectation. You might have thought that the coming days will see a bull market but the actual scenario turns out to be exactly opposite of it. In such scenarios, stop loss comes handy as it squares off your position when a particular price level is triggered. Stop loss acts as safety against huge losses and saves your capital by closing your trade at minimum losses. Hence, you must always put a stop loss in place for all of your intraday trades. If you are a beginner in the stock market, you can set your stop loss at a 3:1 reward to risk ratio. This means that your stop loss should be three times lower the price at which you are ready to book the profit. Timely Book Profit The intraday traders get the benefit of high leverage and margins. This helps them to take big trades and make larger profits. Here the key to success is to not get greedy when the targets are achieved in a stock. Once the target is hit, you must book profits instead of holding it with a hope that the stock would rise further. However, in some special circumstances, the stock price movement can be strong and it can go further up, in such cases you can adjust your stop loss. Determine the Entry and Exit Price You can be successful in intraday trading if you know at what price you would purchase and sell a stock. This is because, during intraday trading, price movements are very fast and your mind can immediately change if you do not have predetermined levels in your mind. Therefore, before taking a trade make sure you know the entry and exit price. Do Not Take Trade to Next Day Intraday trading is all about closing your open positions by the end of the trading session. However, sometimes when your price targets are not met, you might be tempted to take delivery of stocks and take the position to the next day. This is not a good strategy because you took the trade on the basis of intraday market trends and technical levels of that stock on a particular day. There is always a possibility of a trend change on the next day and your trade turning bad. Therefore, it is always advisable to close all the intraday positions on the same day. Research Another intraday stock tip to become a successful trader is to keep researching for a set of stocks that you would like to trade. Study the support and resistance levels of the stocks along with the technical levels. Also, find out which stocks have events lined up ahead and can see good price movements. This would enable you to take the trades confidently and help you earn higher profits.   The above mentioned are a few intraday trading tips that would help you in becoming a better trader. If you are a beginner, you must understand that trading is an art and you would learn it with time. Never take trades in a hurry. However, if you want any assistance regarding intraday trading, you can open a demat account with IndiaNivesh Ltd. We regularly update our clients with picks in the form of best intraday stocks for today. Moreover, these stock market tips for intraday are free.Disclaimer: "Investment in securities market and Mutual Funds are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing."

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    What is ULIP? Insurance plans are meant to provide financial security to you so that in case of premature demise, your family does not face any financial trouble. Though insurance plans provide unmatched financial security, many individuals also seek good investment returns on their premiums. Keeping this sentiment in mind, ULIPs were launched in the year 2000 when private life insurers were also allowed to operate in the insurance domain. Today, ULIPs have become quite popular, and insurance companies are offering different types of ULIPs to their customers. Let’s understand ULIP meaning in detail and its benefits – What is a ULIP plan? ULIP’s full form is Unit Linked Insurance Plan. A ULIP is an investment-oriented life insurance plan. The plan gives you the dual benefits of investment returns and insurance coverage. The premiums that you pay for the plan are invested in market-linked investment funds, which offer attractive growth. 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Benefits of ULIP A ULIP is popular because of the following benefits it provides – It allows you to avail insurance coverage as well as investment returns in a single product The premiums paid and the benefits received under ULIPs are completely tax-free in nature helping you save tax The flexible benefits of ULIPs allow you to manage your investments as per your investment strategy The different types of ULIPs help you fulfil the various financial goals that you might have Switching and partial withdrawals do not attract any tax making ULIPs tax efficient Since the returns are market-linked, you get inflation-adjusted returns from ULIP ULIPs are attractive insurance policies that give you coverage as well as returns. Now that you understand ULIP meaning, its types and advantages, use our IndiaNivesh platform to invest in a plan as per your insurance and investment needs and enjoy all the benefits that the plan has to offer.   Disclaimer: Investment in securities market / Mutual Funds are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing.

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  • What is CAGR & How to Calculate it?

    There are different types of investment avenues in the market and each of these avenues promises you a compounded rate of growth if you remain invested. Compounding of return means earning a return on the return earlier generated. So, if you invest INR 100 and earn a return of 10% in the first year, the amount would become INR 110. Thereafter, in the second year, you would earn 10% on INR 110 giving you a return of INR 11. This compounding helps grow and multiply your wealth considerably over a period of time. In the case of market-linked investments, the rate of return is not guaranteed. It varies over the investment period. To know the average rate of return on your investments, the concept of CAGR is used. Let’s understand what CAGR is and how it helps you find the growth of your market-linked investments. What is CAGR? CAGR’s full-form is Compound Annual Growth Rate. 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The CAGR formula needs three important details which are as follows – Value of the investment made initially (VI) Term of investment (T) Value of the investment at the end of the term (VE) Using these three inputs, the CAGR formula becomes – CAGR = (VE / VI) ^ (1/T) – 1 Let’s understand with an example – Mr. A invested INR 10,000 in a market-linked investment avenue. After 3 years, the value of his investments stands at INR 13,500. The CAGR for Mr.A’s investment could be calculated as below – VI – INR 10,000 T = 3 years VE = INR 13,500 CAGR = (13500/10000) ^ (1/3) – 1 = 10.52% How CAGR helps understand the mutual fund growth rate? Mutual funds are market-linked investment avenues which do not offer a guaranteed rate of return. Since the returns are subject to market fluctuations, CAGR becomes an accurate tool to measure the performance of the fund over a specified period. Investors can check the annual CAGR of mutual fund schemes and use the rate to find out which scheme offers better returns than others. The fact sheet offered by the mutual fund house contains returns generated by the fund over different time frames. These returns can prove to be confusing and so CAGR is an easier alternative to understand the performance of the fund. CAGR acts as a ready reckoner for investors to assess returns from a mutual fund scheme and also highlights the compounding of returns on mutual fund investments. Important points to know about CAGR The investment risk inherent in the scheme is not highlighted by CAGR. CAGR is merely a yardstick to measure the growth rate CAGR proves to be a good measure of growth for a short-term period, i.e. up to 6 or 7 years. If you are considering long-term investments, the growth trends over a short-term period would be averaged out. In such cases, CAGR would give an average rate even if the fund performed excessively well in a two or three year period and then the returns fell in later years. CAGR changes every year since the investment period changes CAGR for two investment funds can match one another even if the funds are different. This might happen if one fund performed well initially and the other one performed well in the last few years. As a result, the performance is averaged out and the CAGR Other modes of calculating returns from investments Besides CAGR, there are other ways to calculate the returns generated by market-linked investments. These ways are as follows – Returns since launch Under this model, the return earned by the fund ever since it was launched and till the present date is calculated. Trailing returns Under the trailing returns approach, you measure the performance of your fund daily, weekly, bi-weekly, monthly or annually. Annualised returns Annualised returns are calculated as the geometric average of the return yielded by the fund over a given period of time. CAGR v/s Absolute returns Absolute returns measure the total return yielded by an investment. The time period is not considered. CAGR, on the other hand, measures the return over a specific time period. For instance, in the previous example, INR 10,000 grew to INR 13,500 over a 3-year period. The absolute return would be 35% since it measures the total return earned on the investment. However, when CAGR is considered, the time period of investments is also taken into consideration thereby considering the time value of money. As such, CAGR comes to 10.52% which is a more realistic figure. While absolute returns show the returns generated, the time period is missing. You cannot figure out how many years it took the investment to generate this return. But CAGR shows you the annual return making it easier to make a judgement on the performance of the fund. The next time you invest in mutual funds, stocks or other market-linked investment avenues, consider their CAGR to choose the fund or investment which has better returns over its peers. So, visit IndiaNivesh and find out a mutual fund scheme of your choice and then compare the scheme’s CAGR with its peers to choose the best performing fund.   Disclaimer: Investment in securities market / Mutual Funds are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing. 

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  • Tax Free Bonds – Meaning, Features & Best Tax Saving Bonds for Investment

    Investors always look for opportunities to invest in avenues that can give them good returns in the long run. Along with high returns on investments, they also look for tax saving options. The tax saving investment options that are popular in terms of high return and zero taxation are tax free bonds and tax saving bonds. If you are looking to make tax saving investments, this article will help you in learning about tax free bonds in India and its related information in detail. Let us first understand what tax free bonds in India are. What are Tax Free Bonds? Tax free bonds are issued by the government enterprise. They are like financial products and includes municipal bonds. They are a low-risk investment option and offer a fixed rate of interest. What makes tax free bonds even more attractive is the fact that it makes you eligible to claim tax exemption under section 10 of the Income Tax Act of India, 1961. The money collected by the government from these bonds is invested in housing and infrastructure projects. The maturity period of these bonds is 10 years or more. The next important question that must be arising in your mind is who should be investing in tax free bonds in India. So let us learn about the investors who can invest in tax free bonds. Who Can Invest in Tax Free Bonds? Investors who are looking for a fixed annual income and interest proceeds can invest in the tax free bonds. It is also a good investment avenue for investors who have a lower risk appetite and are looking to invest for long term duration. Individual investors like Hindu Undivided Family (HUF) members and Non-resident Indians (NRIs), who want to diversify their portfolio can also invest in these bonds. Furthermore, SEBI has allowed qualified institutional investors to invest in these bonds. Partnership companies and limited liability groups are also allowed to invest. In the last few years, the regular investors in tax free bonds include regional banks, cooperative banks, trusts and corporate companies. Let us now learn about the features of tax free bonds. Features of Tax Free Bonds Exempt From Tax The main feature of tax free bonds is that they are exempt from tax. The interest earned on these bonds is free from income tax. However, it is advisable that you must declare your interest as income from tax free bonds and not to claim the tax deduction on the investment amount. Moreover, no tax deducted at source (TDS) is applicable on tax free bonds. These bonds are beneficial for individuals who earn higher income and fall under higher tax bracket.  Low Risk Since tax free bond schemes are run by the government, the chances of default on interest payment is almost nil. This safeguards your capital and also provides you fixed annual income in the form of interest. Liquidity Tax free bonds are long term tax saving investment option and they have extended lock-in period. This suggests that you cannot liquidate tax free bonds quickly. Therefore, you must be aware of the fact that these tax free bonds cannot act as your emergency fund. Lock-In Period While investing in tax free bonds you must ensure that you will not be needing the money in the short term. This is because tax free bonds have lock-in period of 10 to 20 years. This means, you cannot withdraw your investment before the maturity period. Issuance And Transaction The tax free bonds can be purchased through a demat account or in physical form. They are traded on the stock exchange. Here you must remember that only the interest earned on these bonds is tax free and capital gains made by selling the bonds in the stock market is taxable in nature. Returns The returns on tax free bonds are dependent on your purchase price because these bonds are traded in lower volumes and have limited buyers or sellers. Interest Income The investors in the tax free bonds receive the interest on an annual basis. The rate of interest on these bonds ranges from 5.50% to 6.50%. The rate of interest can fluctuate because they are related to the current rate of government securities. The rate of interest on these bonds is very attractive considering the fact that they are exempt from tax. Let us now have a look at few of the popular and upcoming tax free bonds of 2019. Popular and Upcoming Tax Free Bonds of 2019 Some of the popular and upcoming tax free bonds of 2019 are HUDCO N2 Bonds, REC N7 series, HUDCO N3 Bonds, National Highways Authority Of India, REC N6 Bonds, Indian Railways N7 Series, Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency, Power Finance Corporation, etc. Often people use the term tax free bonds for tax saving bonds and vice versa. But in reality, they both are different from each other. In this section of the article you will learn about how tax free bonds are different from tax saving bonds. Difference Between Tax Free Bonds and Tax Saving Bonds Under tax free bonds, the interest earned is exempt from tax under section 10 of the Income-tax Act. The lock-in period is from 10 to 20 years and you can invest up to Rs. 5 lakhs. On the other hand, under tax saving bonds the initial investment made is exempt from tax under section 80CCF of the Income Tax Act. The tax saving bonds have a buy-back clause and you can withdraw your investments after 5 or 7 years. The tax exemption for tax saving bonds is up to an investment of Rs. 20,000. Let us now learn about investment and redemption of tax free bonds. Investment and Redemption of Tax Free Bonds You can make an investment in the tax free bonds through the demat account or in physical form. It is simple and hassle-free to make an investments in these highly rewarding bonds. However, you can make investment only when the period of subscription is open. Just like investing, redeeming tax free bonds is also a very simple task. You can redeem the bonds after the completion of the tenure. Investing in the tax free bonds and tax saving bonds are highly rewarding as they involve almost no risk. If you are new to the financial market or you are looking to invest in tax free bonds or tax saving bonds, you can take the assistance from IndiaNivesh Ltd. We are the leading broking firm and financial advisors in the market. With our assistance, you can achieve your financial goals and objectives in a desired manner.  Disclaimer: Investment in securities market / Mutual Funds are subject to market risks, read all the related documents carefully before investing.

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